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Wednesday, August 19, 2009

International Literacy Day

International Literacy Day is celebrated and observed all over the world on September 8th each year to focus attention, reaffirm commitment, speed up action on issue of literacy and to create a new spirit and forge a new political climate making access to literacy and basic education in developing countries like Pakistan.
International Literacy Day should not be a celebration but a summon to Action. This day (I.L.D.) takes place each year on 8th September and can be observed as an appropriate \'Moment\' to focus attention, concern, commitment and action on issues of Literacy and Basic Education.
The problem of eradication of illiteracy is becoming increasingly difficult and complex. In countries like Pakistan systems are not geared to accommodate all the children of Primary School age group in schools. This contributes to a concerned additions in the ranks of illiterate populations.
At present the literacy rate is estimated (Economic Survey of Pakistan 1992-93) to have improved to 35% (47.3% male and 22.3% female) in 1992-93 from 26.2% in 1981. It is also estimated that 14120 thousand children (9695 male and 4425 female) have enrolled during the year 1992-93 at the primary stage, reflecting an improvement of 10% at primary level alongwith an increase in participation rates which is very encouraging. According latest figures it is estimated to have raised from 65.7% to 66.3% at primary level from 1992 to 1993 and from 66.3% to 69.0% during the year 1992-93 respectively, which shows an increase of about 3% in primary participation rates.
The resolution adopted by the U.N. General Assembly in 1967 provides the following objectives in connection with celebration of International Literacy Day:
i) Every one has the right to education.
ii) Education shall be free at least in the elementary and functional stages.
iii) Elementary education shall be compulsory.
iv) Technical and professional educational shall be made gener-ally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
v) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedom.
vi) It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups and shall further the activities of the UN for the maintenance of peace.
For the last 27 years, UNESCO has been observing International Literacy Day and considerable efforts have bone into creating a general awareness of the need to grant people to their basic right of literacy and basic education. Despite the progress in extending basic/primary education and combating illiteracy, the problem of illiteracy remains as colossal as ever.
AN STATISTICAL PICTURE ABOUT THE LITERACY AND PRIMARY EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN DURING 1981 -1 993 BY SOCIOECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC INDICATORS IS GIVEN BELOW
Indicators 1981
Population (in million) 84.254
Crude Birth Rate 43.30
Crude Death Rate 11.80
Infant Mortality -
Life Expectancy -
Male -
Female -
Compound Growth Rate % 3.06
Labour Force Participation Rate 27.67
Civilian Labour Force 25.80
Employed 24.70
Literacy Rate 0/0
B. Sexes 26.2
Male 35.1
Female 16.0
Current participation Rate
Primary Level (1991-92)
B. Sexes - 66.3%
Male - 83.0%
Female - 49.2%
No. of Primary Schools 124,000
No. of enrolment in Primary School (thousand) - 12,721
Total
Male - 8,685
Female - 4,636
Population 5-9 (million)
School age Children 13.50
Indicators 1991
Population (in million) 113.781
Crude Birth Rate
Crude Death Rate
Infant Mortality 107.7
Life Expectancy
Male - 59.3
Female - 60.7
Compound Growth Rate % 3.10
Labour Force Participation Rate 28.82
Civilian Labour Force 31.82
Employed 29.82
Literacy Rate 0/0
B. Sexes
Male
Female
Current participation Rate
Primary Level (1992-93)
B. Sexes 68.9%
Male 84.8%
Female 53.7%
No. of Primary Schools 133,033
No. of enrolment in Primary School (thousand) 14,120
Total
Male 9,695
Female 4,425
Population 5-9 (million)
School age Children 18.20
Indicators 1992
Population (in million) 117.32
Crude Birth Rate
Crude Death Rate
Infant Mortality 108.0
Life Expectancy
Male 59.3
Female 60.7
Compound Growth Rate % 3.10
Labour Force Participation Rate 28.83
Civilian Labour Force 32.82
Employed 30.75
Literacy Rate 0/0
B. Sexes
Male
Female
Current participation Rate
Primary Level
B. Sexes
Male
Female
No. of Primary Schools
No. of enrolment in Primary School (thousand)
Total
Male
Female
Population 5-9 (million)
School age Children 19.00
Indicators 1993
Population (in million) 20.84
Crude Birth Rate 41.00
Crude Death Rate 11.00
Infant Mortality 104.70
Life Expectancy
Male 59.3
Female 60.7
Compound Growth Rate % 3.00
Labour Force Participation Rate 27.97
Civilian Labour Force 33.80
Employed 31.68
Literacy Rate 0/0
B. Sexes 35.0
Male 56.0
Female 26.7
Current participation Rate
Primary Level
B. Sexes
Male
Female
No. of Primary Schools
No. of enrolment in Primary School (thousand)
Total
Male
Female
Population 5-9 (million)
School age Children 20.00
To commemorate the occasion Pakistan Post is issuing a stamp of Rs. 7/- denomination on September 8,1994.