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Wednesday, August 19, 2009

Pioneers of Freedom (Series) (1995-9)

The Famous Khilafat Leader, Maulana Shaukat Au, was born in a respectable family of Rampur on March, 10th 1873. He was the elder brother of Maulana Muhammad Au Johar. He got early education at Bareilly where his widowed mother sent in-spite of family opposition. Thereafter, he took admission in Mohammedan Anglo Oriental College, Aligarh and graduated in 1895.
During education he took part in sports and participated in College Cricket Eleven as a Captain. He won Cambridge Speaking Prize in 1894. After education he served inn Government Opium Department as Assistant Opium Agent for 17 years. He was elected Honorary Secretary, Old Boys Association of Mohammedan Anglo Oriental College, Aligarh from 1913 to 1915.
He was one of the founders of a society named \"Anjuman-Khuddam-i-Kaaba\" for the Protection of the holy places of Islam from non-Muslim aggressions. As its Joint Secretary, he did a lot to popularize the movement. He helped his younger and illustrious brother \"Muhammad All Johar\" in managing his papers. He, alongwith his brother, was interned in May 1915. He was released in December 1919.
He attended the session of Indian National Congress and All India Muslim League in Amritsar.
Alongwith his brother took part in the Non-cooperation Movement. He was elected Secretary General of Khilafat Committee in 1920 and then re-elected in 1922 its Honorary Secretary. He toured the country to propagate the Non-cooperation creed in 1920-21. He planned to sent a Khilafat delegation to Afghanistan regarding the suffering of Muhajirs in 1920, but the project did not materialize. In September 1921 he was prosecuted alongwith his brother and awarded two years imprisonment on October 29, 1923, he was released. He presided over the Annual Session of All India Khilafat Committee at Canada in 1924 in which it was decided to form a socio-political body for improving the social condition of Indians which was called \"Hindustani Seva DaI\". He also presided over its first session at Belgium. Like his brother, he greatly opposed the Nehru reports. He was the member of delegation to Round Table Conference in London in 1930. He campaigned for the Muslim League in the Assembly elections.
He participated in the Annual Session of All India Muslim League and moved a resolution for the calling of an All Parties Muslim Conference in 16th session, Bombay, December 1924. He attended Muslim League Council meeting where he appealed for unity and favoured compromise with Hindus. At special session in Calcutta in 1938, he said that the Congress has ceased to be a national organisation after the Muslims had left it. In 1934, he was elected Indian Member of Central Legislative Assembly. He died at Delhi in 26th November 1938 and lies buried near Jamia Masjid Delhi.
Chaudhry Ghulam Abbas, the veteran Kashmiri leader, a great pioneers of the Freedom Movement and a trusted lieutenant of Quaid-e-Azam was born in a middle class family of Jammu in 1904.
Educated and trained as a lawyer, his entire life was devoted to the struggle for the rights of the Muslims of Jammu & Kashmir who, despite their overwhelming majority, were subjected to worst kind of exploitation under the minority Hindu Dogra rule. The Young Men Muslims Association, which he set up as early as 1923, played a significant political role, particularly, in countering the Shudhi Movement of the Hindu fanatics. The sudden eruption of mass resentment, in 1931, against the tyrannical Dogra rule brought Chaudhry Ghulam Abbas, alongwith Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah, in the fore-front of freedom movement. A period of intense political activity that followed eventually resulted in the acceptance of a charter of demands put forth to the specially constituted Glancy Commission by All Jammu & Kashmir Muslim Conference a newly established political platform. Chaudhry Ghulam Abbas was a member of this Commission and contributed significantly to its deliberations.
In 1939, the Indian National Congress succeeded in creating a schism in the Muslim leadership of Kashmir by persuading Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah to convert the Muslim Conference into a secular party, this was an obvious move to create diversion in the freedom struggle of the Muslims of Kashmir which was solely directed against the Hindu ruler and as such was Islamic in character. Chaudhry Ghulam Abbas was wise enough to see the trap; Sheikh Abdullah willingly walked into it.
Soon after Chaudhry Ghulam Abbas assumed the leadership of Muslim Conference. This was the beginning of a career of unswerving political determination and the conviction that the fate of the Muslims of Kashmir was linked with the Indian Muslims and an independent Islamic state was their common destiny.
In 1944 Quaid-i-Azam visited Kashmir and advised the Kashmiri Muslims to follow Chaudhry Ghulam Abbas under the banner of Muslim Conference. He was again arrested in 1946 and remained in Jammu Jail till his repatriation to Pakistan in 1948.
He was accorded the high status of Supreme Head of Kashmir Liberation Movement and AJK Government. He also held the office of Chairman, Kashmir Refugees Central Relief Committee with Chief Ministers of Punjab, Sindh and Frontier Provinces as its members. In 1962 he was elected Chairman Kashmir Committee with Khawaja Nazimuddin, Mr. Hussain Shaheed Suhrawardy, Chaudhry Muhammad Ali and Syed Abu-ul-Ala Maudoodi as its members. Revered as a symbol of dedication, honesty and self-lessness, Chaudhry Ghulam Abbas breathed his last in December 1967 at the age of 63 and is lying in rest in Faizabad, Rawalpindi.
To commemorate the Pioneers of Freedom (Series) Pakistan Post is issuing a set of two commemorative postage stamps of Re. 1/- each denomination on August 14,1995.