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Wednesday, August 19, 2009

First Conference of Women Parliamentarians - From Muslim Countries. (1995-8)

The Parliament of Pakistan has organized a three-day conference of Women Parliamentarians from Muslim countries at Islamabad from August 1-3, 1995.
The aim of the Conference is to bring together women parliamentarians from Muslim countries, and to discuss problems of socio-economic development as well as to provide a consensus and direction for the forthcoming 4th United Nations World Conference on Women, scheduled at Beijing, in September, 1995. In this conference there will be general debate and consideration of Effective role of Women in the Parliament and Society at large.
a) Theme 1 \"Projection of Islam as religion of equality, tolerance and non-discrimination\'.
b) Theme II \"Problems common to Women in Muslim countries and their solutions\".
c) Theme III \"Effectiveness of Women\'s role in economic development\".
Apart from many women parliamentarians three of them are Heads of Governments.
Professor Dr. Tansu Ciller. Prime Minister. Republic of Turkey Former State Minister Professor Tansu Ciller was born in Istanbul in 1946.
A graduate of Robed College, Tansu Ciller received a degree in economics from Bogazici University. Ciller obtained a Ph.D. degree in economics from the University of Connecticut.
Her post-doctoral studies were carried out at Yale University.
Ciller became associate professor in 1978 and full professor in 1983. After serving on the academic boards of various universities, mainly in Bogazici University\'s Department of Economics, Professor Ciller entered politics in November 1990 in Suleyman Demirel\'s True Path Party. She became deputy chairperson of the DYP, following her election victory to the DYP executive board.
In the October 20, 1991 election she was elected to Parliament from Istanbul on the True Path Party ticket. With the formation of the True Path Social Democrat coalition government; Ciller was appointed state minister responsible for the economy in Demirel\'s cabinet. Emerging as an active member of this cabinet, Ciller gained popularity, especially with her contacts in the West.
She decided to run for DYP leadership following Demirel\'s election as Turkey 9th President; Ciller got the highest vote in the first round of elections at the DYP\'s extraordinary convention on Sunday, leaving other candidates far behind. Ciller is Turkey\'s first woman Prime Minister.
She has nine publications on economy. Married with two children, Professor Ciller speaks fluent English and German. Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto. Prime Minister. Islamic Republic of Pakistan. On October 19,1993, Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto, 40, was sworn in as Prime Minister of Pakistan. She has rate distinction of being the second Prime Minister in the history of the country to have been elected to the office twice through a popular mandate. Her illustrious father late Mr. Zulfikar All Bhutto was the first.
From July, 1977 to 1988 as a leader of the Pakistan Peoples Party Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto waged a relentless struggle for the restoration of democracy in the country. She was imprisoned for long years, witnessed the trauma of the hanging of her father in April 1979 and the mysterious death of her younger brother, Mr. Shahnawaz, and was also exiled. She faced the oppression with courage and determination.
Arrested nine times and held in detention or in prison for more than five and-a-half years.
Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto became an international symbol as she led the fight for the restoration of democracy in Pakistan from her prison cell. Her victory in the November 1988 elections catapulted her Pakistan People\'s Party to power. She played a key-role in the formation of a nine-party alliance for the restoration of democracy in 1981. Called the Movement for the Restoration of Democracy (MAD), the alliance mobilized the people to put pressure on the government of General Zia-ul-Haq to hold elections in the country and hand over power to the representatives of the people.
The regime\'s response to the call for the restoration of democracy was a sustained period of repression and the arrest of political leaders, including Ms. Bhutto, who was imprisoned in March 1981. She remained under detention until January 1984, when due to serious health problems she was obliged to seek medical treatment in the United Kingdom.
From exile, Ms. Bhutto continued to guide the resistance to the military regime in Pakistan.
She also decided to restructure the PPP, her objective was to strengthen the channels of communication and consultation at grass-roots level and to involve party cadres in the decision-making process.
Ms. Bhutto also played a significant role in espousing the cause of restoration of democracy at various international forums. She returned to Pakistan in April 1986. The reception given to her on her arrival in Lahore from exile has no parallel.
The turning point in the country\'s political set up came with the death of General Zia-ul-Haq in a plane crash in August 1988. General elections were held in Pakistan on November 16, 1988.
The Pakistan People\'s Party won majority of seats in the National Assembly and Ms. Bhutto was invited by President Ghulam Ishaq Khan to form a government. Declaring that \"Democracy was the best revenge\" she decided to guide people from anarchy to the management of democracy. She acted forcefully to restore constitutional freedoms. She lifted the ban on students\' and trade unions imposed under the military dictatorship, immediately restored freedom to the press and agreed to separation of the judiciary from the executive. During her 20 months as Prime Minister, her government built 8000 public and secondary schools and electrified 4600 villages throughout the country. The budgetary allocation in these sectors were increased so that fruits of democracy and freedom could reach the common man. Similarly, in the domain of foreign policy, her government pursued an aggressive and dynamic policy.
Addressing the Congress, during her state visit to the United States in 1989, Prime Minister Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto called for the establishment of an Association of New Democratic Nations.
Although, Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto became the Prime Minister of Pakistan with popular vote and mandate to serve the people for full tenure, her stay was made difficult through back-door intrigues. Silhouettes of dictatorship and martial law by then continued to cast shadows over the nascent democratic system.
On August 6,1990, after having been in office for less than half of her tenure, President Ghulam Ishaq Khan dismissed her government unconstitutionally and called for fresh elections.
While ensuring that her party was no returned to power, the President and the Caretaker Prime Minister filed a series of references against Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto. Her husband, Mr. Asif Ali Zardari was arrested and imprisoned for over two years on a number of trumped up charges. None of the charges could be proved.
Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto was the leader of the Opposition from 1990 to 1993. Her party questioned the fairness of the October 1990 General Elections. Even Mr. Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi, who was the Caretaker Prime Minister questioned the fairness of the 1990 elections.
In July 1993, the President of Pakistan dismissed the Government of Prime Minister Mian Nawaz Sharif and called for fresh elections. The Pakistan People\'s Party went to the hustings in October 1993 with a new Agenda for change. The programme envisages government at the doorstep of the people and priority to the social sectors.
Prime Minister Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto was born in Karachi on dune 21, 1953. After completing her early schooling in Pakistan, she was educated at Radcliffe College and at Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. While at Oxford she became the first non-British woman to be elected President of the Oxford Union, the University\'s prestigious debating team. She followed a long list important international leaders who achieved this distinction in their student days. In 1977, she completed Oxford\'s diploma course in International Law and Diplomacy and returned to Pakistan.
Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto is author of two books - Foreign Policy in Perspective (1978) and Daughter of Destiny (1988). Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto is the recipient of Bruno Kreisty Human Rights Award conferred on her in Vienna in 1988, and the Honorary Phi Beta Kappa Award (1989) presented by Radcliffe College, Highest Moroccan Award, Highest French Award, UNIFEM and Honorary Doctorate from Harvard University. Honorary fellowships have also been conferred on her by Lady Margaret Hall and St. Catherine\'s College, Oxford. She also received the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws (Honoris Cause) at the University of Sindh in 1994. She is the first female Graduate from Harvard University to become elected Chief Executive of the country. At 35, youngest elected Chief Executive in the world and first woman Prime Minister in the Muslim World.
Prime Minister Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto is married to Mr. Asif Ali Zardari, Member National Assembly, belongs to an old and influential family of Nawabshah. They have a five-year old son Bilawal, four-year-old daughter Bakhtawar and one year old Asifa.
To commemorate the occasion Pakistan Post is issuing a set of two commemorative postage stamps of Rs. 5/- value each on August 1,1995.