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Wednesday, August 19, 2009

Pioneers Of Freedom (Series)

NAWAB MOHSIN-UL-MULK (1837-1907)
Syed Mehdi Ali, better known by his title Mohsin-ul-Mulk awarded by Nizam of Hyderabad, belonged to a poor Syed family of Etawa, UP (India). He was the son of Mir Zamin All and was born on 9 December, 1837. He did not receive any formal education rather learnt Persian and Arabic at home and later was taught by Maulana lnayat Hussain at Phapund near Etawa. He gave up his studies and became a clerk in the District Revenue office of the East India Company at the tender age of 17 in 1857. He later got promoted as Tehsildar of Etawa in 1861. He thereafter appeared in an open competitive examination in 1867 and became Deputy Collector, Mirzapur and soon proved his acumen as an able administrator.
In 1874 he was picked up by Sir Salar Jang, Prime Minister of Hyderabad State, which he served with distinction for 19 years retiring in 1893. During this period he held the offices of Inspector General of Revenue, Commissioner of Settlement, in Survey Department and Revenue Secretary. He became Finance and Political Secretary in 1884. He also undertook journey to England in 1888 and met the Liberal statesman Gladstone. He was instrumental in replacing Persian by Urdu as the court language. He was awarded by the Nizam of Hyderabad with the title of Muneer Nawaz Jang, Mohsinud-Daula Mohsin-uI-MuIk. After earning his pension in 1893 he settled in Aligarh.
Although in the beginning he was critical of some of the literary work of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan yet, his personal meeting with Sir Syed in 1863 filled him with deep respect for this great person and he became one of his ardent admirers and a chief lieutenant. He played a leading part in furthering the objectives of the Aligarh Movement and contributed scholarly articles on religion, education and morals to Sir Syed’s journal Tehzib-ul-Akhlaq. Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk infused new life into All India Muhammedan Conference\' whose activities he guided and expanded as Secretary from 1896 to 1906. He was also twice elected as its President and made a mark as a gifted speaker at the Conferences. He worked indefatigably and toured different parts of the country to raise funds for the Muhammedan Anglo Oriental (MAO) College. After the death of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Nawab Mohsin-uI-MuIk opted as Secretary of the College and thereby saved it from virtual bankruptcy. The MAO College witnessed an un-paralleled era of educational expansion and cultural activities during his tenure. The crowning achievement of his career was the 35 member All India Muslim Deputation that he organized and which presented the memorandum to the Viceroy Lord Minto at Simla and achieved the grant of separate representation for Muslims in legislative bodies in October, 1906.
He was appointed, alongwith Viqar-ul-Mulk, Joint Secretary of the All India Muslim League at its inaugural Session in Dhaka in 1906. He was a great advocate of Muslim cause in India and ardently opposed Muslims participation in the Indian National Congress.
Nawab Mohsin-uI-MuIk died at Simla on 16 October, 1907.
SIR SHAH NAWAZ BHUTTO (1888-1957)
Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto, a politician of great repute, belonged to the landed aristocracy of Sindh and was the son of Ghulam Murtaza Khan Bhutto. He was born in his ancestral village, Garhi Khuda Bux Bhutto in Larkana District (Sindh) in 1888.
He got his early education at Sindh Madressah and later at St. Patrick High School at Karachi.
Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto was Member Imperial Legislative Council from 1919 to 1920. He was made Honorary First Class Magistrate, District Larkana in 1921. He was nominated Chairman, Cooperative Bank, District Larkana and President, District Local Board, Larkana in 1921-1934.
He was also Member of the Bombay Legislative Council from 1921 to 1936. He was President Muhammedan Association, Sindh in 1924.
He was a Delegate to the Round Table Conference in London in 1930-1931.
He remained Minister, Local Self Government, Bombay Presidency from 1934 to 1936.
Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto was the President of Sindh Azad Conference and Adviser to Government of Sindh from 1936 to 1937. In the 23rd Session of the All India Muslim League held in Delhi in November, 1933, Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto was elected as Vice President of All India Muslim League.
Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto played a key role in the separation of Sindh from Bombay Presidency in 1935-36. He became Member Public Service Com-mission for Bombay & Sindh in 1937 and remained so till 1947. Meanwhile, he became Senior Member, Executive Council, Junagarh State. In 1947, he occupied the most coveted position in Junagarh as its Prime Minister. He was deeply impressed by the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and most successfully led the Pakistan Movement in the State of Junagarh. Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto has left an indelible mark in the history of our freedom movement by advising the Ruler of Junagarh to declare its accession to Pakistan an act of supreme devotion toward the cause of Muslim freedom in the Indo-Pakistan Sub-continent.
After the creation of Pakistan, Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto migrated to his dreamland, \'Pakistan and gave to its people and the country two eminent leaders in the person of Shaheed Zulfiqar All Bhutto, his beloved son and Benazir Bhutto his loving grand daughter. He died in November, 1957.
NAWAB VIQAR-UL-MULK (1841-1917)
Mushtaq Hussain, widely known as Nawab Viqar-ul-Mulk, was the son of Munshi Fazal Hussain and was born in a Village in Moradabad District, UP (India) in 1841. He got his early education at Amroha. After passing his Entrance Examination in 1859 he joined Roorke Engineering College but left studies un-finished and instead joined as a temporary Assistant Teacher in his hometown. His work in the Moradabad famine brought him to the notice of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, then Sub-Judge at Aligarh, who appointed him as his Reader in 1861. Nawab Viqar-ul-Mulk assisted Sir Syed in his educational work in many ways. On Sir Syed\'s transfer to Banaras, Viqar-ul-Mulk worked under Moulvi Samiullah Khan. The two became friends and co-workers for / life. He helped Samiullah Khan in running the elementary school started by the College Foundation Committee Aligarh in 1873 and was a leading member of the Aligarh Scientific Society and an important contributor to Sir Syed Ahmed Khans \'Tehzib-ul-Akhlaq.
On recommendation of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan he joined the Hyderabad State service where he was appointed Inspector of Courts. He also held high appointments there but resigned in 1892. The title of Viqar-ul-Mulk was awarded by Nizam of Hyderabad during his service in Hyderabad State.
Nawab Viqar-ul-Mulk settled down in Amroha and became member of the Amroha Municipal Board and remained so up till 1900. He took leading part in the attempt to form a Muslim political organization. He organized a meeting at Lucknow in October 1901 and toured the country to canvas support for the idea and convened a public meeting of Muslims at Saharanpur in July, 1903 at which was formed the \'Muslim Muhammedan Political Association\'.
He was instrumental in drafting \'Muslim Memorial alongwith Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk and Imad-ul-Mulk and was one of the members of the Muslim Delegation that presented the Memorial to the Viceroy at Simla in October 1906. Nawab Viqar-ul-Mulk presided over the Inaugural Session of All India Muslim League at Dhaka in December 1906-7. He became Secretary, All India Muslim League from 1907-8 and Member, Central Committee in the First Session at Aligarh in March 1908. He was also Member of Reforms Sub-Committee in the Second Session of the All India Muslim League held in Amritsar in December, 1908. He was elected Vice President of the All India Muslim League in its Third Session in January, 1910 and re-IN elected Vice President in the Seventh Session held at Agra in December, 1913.
Following the death of Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk, he resigned as Secretary of All India Muslim League in 1908 to take over as Secretary of the MAO College and remained so till \'1913 when he resigned due to ill health. He was not in favour of Muslims joining All India Congress. Nawab Viqar-ul-Mulk died on 27 January, 1917.
PIR ILAHI BUX (1890-1975)
Pir Ilahi Bux was born at Pir Jo Goth in 1890 in a spiritual family of District Dadu. He was only 9 years of age when his father Pir Nawaz Ali Shah died. He was brought up by his maternal uncle Fir Lal Muhammad. His family was a descendant of Makhdoom Moosa, 5th son of Hazrat Makhdoom Sarwar Nooh Rahmatullah Alaih.
Pir Sahib got his primary education from the Government High School Bhan Syedabad and did his matriculation from Naz High School, Khairpur (Mirs). Thereafter, he went to Aligarh Muslim University for his higher education. He was the first member of his family who received higher education. Deeply moved by the Khilafat Movement, led by Maulana Muhammad Au Jauhar, he soon left Aligarh Muslim University and joined Jamia Millia headed by Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar and did his B.A. from there. But this Degree was not recognised by the British Government. He was so deeply motivated by the Khilafat Movement and the struggle for the freedom of the Muslim Ummah that he left his studies and returned to Sindh as a leader of Khilafat Movement.
On the suppression of the Khilafat Movement by the British Government, Pir Sahib was advised by Late Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto, the then President, District Local Board, Larkana to go back to Aligarh for completing his studies. He also awarded him scholarship of the District Board for pursuing his educational career. Fir Sahib acceded to the advice of Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto and proceeded to Aligarh Muslim University from where he did his M.A. in History and thereafter obtained his degree in Bachelor of Law. Fir Sahib soon returned to Larkana and started his legal practice.
He also started taking part in politics. He was elected member of Sindh Legislative Assembly in 1937 in the election held under the 1935 Act. He got elected again by defeating influential landlords and zamindars of that time.
He founded the Sindh United Front\' which aimed at separating Sindh from Bombay Province which ultimately contributed significantly toward the establishment of Sindh as a separate Province.
He was inducted in Sindh Cabinet headed by Late Allah Bux Soomro and was given the portfolio of Education. Fir Sahib remained Education Minister for ten years.
Pir Sahib having been deeply inspired by Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, soon joined Muslim League and became one of his most trusted Lieutenants. He was an indefatigable fighter for education in Sindh and strived hard to introduce adult education and compulsory primary education in every nook and corner of the province.
Having been deeply committed to the cause of education, he steered Sindh University Act in the Assembly and got it through. Quaid-e-Azam was deeply moved by this act of Pir Illahi Bux and personally donated Rs. 150,00OI-towards the University at that time.
Pir Sahib was one of the pioneers of S.M. College and remained as the President of Sindh Madressah Board for years together.
In 1948 he was nominated the Chief Minister of Sindh Province by Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad All Jinnah. Pir Sahib was always proud to have been nominated as the Chief Minister of Sindh by no less than the Quaid-e-Azam himself. He was also the founder of Karachi University and was the prime mover of the establishment of Urdu College, Karachi.
He was deeply perturbed over the mass influx of refugees from India during the early period of the establishment of Pakistan and initiated a number of moves for the settlement of refugees in Sindh. He established the famous Pir Illahi Bux Colony in Karachi toward the end in 1948.
He was also instrumental in inviting eminent educationists from Aligarh Muslim University, his alma mater, to serve the Muslims of Pakistan by appointed them in the Sindh University. One of such personalities was Professor A.B.A. Haleem from the Aligarh Muslim University, who was appointed by him as the first Vice Chancellor of Sindh University. Pir Illahi Bux died on October 8, 1975.
SIR SHEIKH ABDUL QADIR (1874-1 950)
Sir Sheikh Abdul Qadir was the son of Sheikh Fatehuddin of Kasur. He was born at Kasur (Punjab) in 1874. He got his education from Forman Christian College, Lahore and did his B.A. from there in 1894. He went to England \'for higher studies and stayed there from 1904 to 1907.
He did his Bar-at-Law from Lincoln\'s Inn in 1904.
Sir Sheikh Abdul Qadir started his career as a journalist and became the Editor of \'The Observer\' (English weekly) from 1888 to 1904 and \'Makhzan\' monthly (Urdu) from 1901 to 1911, both from Lahore. Sheikh Abdul Qadir soon emerged as an eminent man of letters. He retained his devotion to Urdu during many years of his varied public activities as lawyer, politician, judge and administrator. He has a number of books to his credit. He practiced in Delhi for 2 years and was later appointed Public Prosecutor at Lyallpur (now Faisalabad), Punjab in 1919-20.
Sheikh Abdul Qadir was elected Member Punjab Legislative Council in 1923.He remained Deputy President, Punjab Legislative Council in 1924. He became the first elected President of the Council in January, 1925 by defeating Gokul Chand Narang by a wide margin of votes. He was later nominated non-official Member, Punjab Legislative Council.
Sir Sheikh Abdul Qadir resigned from the President-ship of the Council to a as Minister of Education, Punjab. He was Member of the Committee of Enquiry to examine the Jail Administration in Punjab. He was deputed as a full Delegate to represent India at the Seventh Assembly of League of Nations in Geneva in 1926. He acted as Revenue Member of the Punjab Executive Council in 1927 and Member Public Service Commission in 1929. He became Additional Judge, Lahore High Court on 20 February, 1934 and Member, Council of the Secretary of State for India in July, 1934.
Sir Sheikh Abdul Qadir was appointed Adviser to the Secretary of State for India from 1937 to 1939. He also briefly officiated as Law Member, Government of India in the later period of 1939.
He was elected Member of the International Committee for Intellectual Cooperation, Geneva in 1939 and remained Chief Justice, Bahawalpur State from 1940 to 1943.
He started his political career by initially joining the Unionist Party but S00I left it to join the Muslim League. He attended all its Annual Sessions right from its early days and actively participated in its deliberations. He was Member of the various Committees set up by the All India Muslim League He was elected President of the All India Muslim League in its Delhi Session held from 29 to 31 December, 1926.
Sir Sheikh Abdul Qadir was a great advocate of education for the Muslims of India and ardently pleaded for the introduction of Constitutional Reforms to better the lots of the Muslims of India. He ardently supported separate electorate for Muslims to enable them to become a forceful and viable entity in India. He pleaded fervently for a fair share for Muslims in services.
He was Chairman, Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam Lahore for many years-the Anjuman being, after the Muslim Educational Conference, the most important All India Muslim Organisation. He was also Member Kamal Yar Jang Educational Committee in 1940 which addressed itself to the Muslin-education in India. He died in February, 1950.
DR. SIR ZIAUDDIN AHMED (1878-1947)
Dr. Sir Ziauddin Ahmed was a great mathematician, an accomplished educationist, a capable administrator and a great politician. He was the son of Hafiz Muinuddin, an employee in the District Collectorate and related to Nawab Viqar-ul-Mulk. He was born in Meerut in 1878. He was a brilliant ~ student at MAO College, Aligarh from where he obtained his Bachelor of Arts Degree in 1895. Deeply impressed by his acumen and intellect he was recommended by Principal Theodors Morison for nomination as Deputy Collector, but he gracefully declined the offer and instead got a job as a teacher of Mathematics in his college in July, 1895.
Dr. Sir Ziauddin Ahmed simultaneously continued his studies. He did M.A. in Mathematics from Calcutta University, and D.Sc. from Allahabad University in 1901 and thereafter proceeded to Trinity College, Cambridge (1901-1903) and studied in Cambridge for specialisation in the study of Arab contribution to astronomy. He was also made member of the Mathematical Society of London and Fellow of Royal Astronomical Society in 1904. He got his Ph.D. from Goettingen University in Germany in 1905. He studied modern geometry in Bologne University, Italy. He also studied in Sorbornne (Paris) and Al-Azhar, Cairo.
Dr. Ziauddin returned to his teaching post in Aligarh in December, 1906. He devoted himself passionately to the affairs of the college and became a Professor of Mathematics. Later he became the Principal of MAO College. He was the Secretary, \'Muslim University Foundation Committee\' to draft the constitution of the University in 1916. When the MAO College was turned into Aligarh Muslim University in 1920, he became its first Pro Vice Chancellor. He was member of deputation to submit grievances of Muslim regarding their backwardness in education to the U.P. Government on 14th August, 1924. He was President, \'Provincial Muslim Educational Conference\', Pilibhit in 1926. He was also the President of \'All India Educational Conference\', Lahore in 1933. He also attended the Lucknow Conference on Muslim Education, February 1934. In 1935 he became the Vice Chancellor of the Aligarh Muslim University for two terms. In 1946, he became the Rector of Aligarh Muslim University.
Dr. Sir Ziauddin was one of the founding members of All India Muslim \'League and remained its member till the end. He attended the Annual Sessions of the All India Muslim League and actively participated in its ~ deliberations. He was Member of the U.P. Legislative Council from 1924 to 1926. He was Member of the Central Legislative Assembly from 1931 to 1935. As Member of the Legislative Assembly of India, when Quaid-e-Azam formed the Muslim League Parliamentary Party, Dr. Ziauddin was chosen to be its Secretary. So, in the field of education on the one hand and the Muslim political emancipation on the other, he, as a true lieutenant of Quaid-e-Azam, played in the renaissance of the Muslims of India. He was re-elected in 1935 and again, on Muslim League ticket in 1946.
Sir Ziauddin died in December, 1947 in London where he had gone with the scheme of setting up a Medical College in the Aligarh Muslim University.
JAM MIR GHULAM QADIR KHAN (1920-1988)
Jam Mir Ghulam Qadir Khan was born in 1920 at Bela, District Lasbella (Balochistan). He was the son of Jam Ghulam Muhammad Khan, ruler o Lasbella State. Due to extreme illness of his mother, he was brought up by a noble lady of Ronja tribe, Hajiani Aami. This upbringing in the family of common people and away from princely luxuries left a deep mark on his character which remained manifest for the love of the common man al along his life. His father was extremely conscious of imparting proper education to his princely son. He was initially sent to Sindh Madresah-tul-Islam, Karachi and thereafter he was sent to Aitchison College, Lahore where he did his Senior Cambridge.
His considerably long stay in Lahore with varied experience widened his knowledge and exposed him to the political currents of his time which helped him a lot in his later years.
Deeply inspired and moved by the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and his ceaseless struggle for freedom of the Muslim Ummah from the twin clutches of the Hindus and the British Raj in India, Jam Ghulam Qadir was one of the first princely rulers to announce accession of his State Lasbella to Pakistan in 1947.
In 1948, he was elected. Member of the Pakistan Constituent Assembly and remained so till the dissolution of the Assembly. He was again elected Member of the West Pakistan Legislative Assembly in 1954. He was subsequently appointed Cabinet Minister for Auqaf and Prisons in the then West Pakistan Government. Again in 1962 he was elected member of the National Assembly on the Pakistan Muslim League ticket. He was once again appointed Minister in the West Pakistan Cabinet.
He also acted President of Pakistan Muslim League, Karachi and Lasbella. He was elected Member of Provincial Assembly, Balochistan in 1970. In April, 1973 he assumed the office of the Chief Minister of Balochistan. On the imposition of Governors Rule in Balochistan in 1976, he was appointed as the Chief Adviser to the Government of Balochistan with the status of the Chief Minister. He also held the post of Speaker, Provincial Assembly, Balochistan in 1976-77. From July, 1977 till 1985 he remained Member of the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament). After 1985 elections he again became the Chief Minister of Balochistan and remained so till 1988.
In the summer of 1988, Jam Ghulam Qadir proceeded to America. On his return he fell ill and died in London on the 10th December, 1988 due to heart attack.
SARDAR AURANGZEB KHAN (1899-1953)
Sardar Aurangzeb Khan was born in 1899 at Kulachi, District Dera Ismail Khan, in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP). He was the son of Mohammad Ayyaz Khan and belonged to a renowned Pathan tribe “Ghandapur”. After completing his early education at Kulachi he passed his secondary school examination from Mission High School, Dera Ismail Khan.
Deeply impressed by the services of Sir Sahibzada Abdul Qaiyum Khan toward the cause of education of the Muslims of the lndo-Pakistan sub-continent, he settled in Peshawar and under the active patronage and guidance of Sir Sahibzada he passed his B.A. examination from Mission College, Peshawar with distinction and got admission in Aligarh Muslim University and earned Bachelor of Law degree. He was President of the Muslim Students Union and was awarded the title of Best Student of the College. On completion of his studies at the Aligarh Muslim University he returned to Peshawar to practice law in the courts.
He participated in Round Table Conference as Personal Secretary to Sahibzada Abdul Qaiyum. In 1937, he joined the Muslim League and was elected as Member Legislative Assembly in the same year. He was Opposition Leader in the NWFP Congress Government. In 1943, Muslim League Government was formed in the NWFP Province and Sardar Aurangzeb became its Chief Minister, being Leader of the House. The Muslim League Government continued till the year 1945. He became Vice President of the Muslim League in NWFP after the creation of Pakistan in 1947. He was one of the founding members of the Muslim League in NWFP. He was appointed as Ambassador of Pakistan to Burma where he served till his death in 1953.
To commemorate the Pioneers of Freedom (Series) Pakistan Postal Services Corporation is issuing a set of eight commemorative postage stamps of Re. 1/- each denomination on August 14, 1994.