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Thursday, August 20, 2009

Pioneers of Freedom (Series) August 14,1992

Syed Suleman Nadvi was born in 1884 in village Deesna of District Patna. His father, Hakeem Syed Abul Hassan had a great respect amongst the masses because of his piety, politeness and nobility. Syed Suleman Nadvi acquired his primary education at his home and attained Arabic education at Phalwari Shareef and Madras-e-lmdadia Darbhanga for some time. In 1901, he attached himself with Darul-Aloom Nadva for higher religious and Arabic education. The academic atmosphere at Nadva was quite exemplary, which polished Syed\'s literary taste. At Nadva, Syed got opportunities of acquiring bounty from great scholars like Maulana Farooq Charyakoti, Syed Muhammad Ali, Maulana Hafeezullah and Maulana Shibli Naumani. At Nadva, Syed acquired skill in writing laudatory poems in Arabic and Persian.
Syed was the most dignified student of Maulana Shibli Naumani and was greatly influenced by him. He got a special skill in writing and oratory under the able supervision of Maulana Shibli Naumani. He also acquired training in philosophy, literature and history from Nadva. He was very keen in research methods and possessed great mastery in criticism. He had a great trend towards mysticism and simplicity.
Syed attached himself with a paper titled \"AI-Nadva\" of Maulana Shibli Naumani in 1904 and became its editor in 1906. He acquired a great command in Arabic language and literature at Darul-Aloom Nadva. He was a prompt and an eloquent orator of Arabic. In 1908, he was appointed teacher of Modern Arabic Literature, Science and Religion at Darul-Aloom Nadva. During this time, he wrote two books under the title of \"Daroos-ul-Adab\" which have still great importance in Arabic literature. He was appointed as Secretary Education of Darul-Aloom Nadva in 1915.
Darul Aloom Nadva, although a religious institution, was also making efforts in creating political consciousness amongst the Muslims of India. Many religious scholars attached with this great institution were staunch supporters of the movement launched by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. Syed Suleman Nadvi, like his teacher Shibli, did not wish that the Muslims should join the Congress. He advised the Muslims to keep themselves aloof from the Congress. He believed that if India succeeded in attaining freedom at any time, the Congress will play the role of a lion and the ~ Muslim League would become its victim like a fox.
His attachment with Al-Nadva and AI-Hilal, made him fully aware of the political conditions of the Muslims of the world in general and of India in particular. Syed was also conscious of the changes which were taking place in the beginning of the 20th century. Through the above mentioned circumstances it appears that Syed kept informed the Muslims of India about the alarming situation and designs of their foes. During the Khilafat Movement, Syed also used his pen forcefully to give momentum to the movement. He also accompanied the delegations of the Khilafat Committee to Europe, where he projected the rights and demands of the Turkish as well as the Muslims of India. Syed had declared India as \"Darul Harrab\" because of her peculiar conditions.
During a conflict between Sheriff of Mecca and Shah lbn-e-Saood, Syed led the delegation of Khilafat Committee to Hejaz in 1926. Syed, while representing the sentiments of the Muslims declared without hesitation that a democratic system should be introduced in Arabia. He also participated in the Conference of Motamar-e-Alam-e-Islami at Mecca in the capacity of its Vice President.
Syed with his untiring efforts eliminated the effects of Shuddhi and Sanghtan Movements launched by Swami Shirdhanand. By this way, he not only protected the Muslims but also guarded their Islamic entity and religious beliefs. Syed not only worked at educational front for the well being of the Muslims but also participated in every movement which was meant for the liberation of the Muslims of India.
Syed attached himself with Shibli Academy in 1916 from where he published some important books which later played a prominent role in the training of new generations. He was a great scholar and a historian of repute. He possessed great skill as a critic of poetry. He was a great admirer of \"Seerat-un-Nabi\" written by Maulana Shibli Naumani and credit of its completion also goes to him. He wrote \"Seerat-e-Aysha\" in 1910 and Arz-ul-Quran\" in 1918. He also wrote a book on Umar Khayyam, in which he has discussed his services in detail. He published collection of his essays \"Naqoosh-i-Sulemani\" in 1939. He also wrote a detailed history of Maulana Shibli Naumani. He delivered sermons on the life of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him), which have also been translated into English. He produced \"Daroos-ul-Adab\" and also prepared a dictionary of new Arabic words.
He was awarded the degree of D.Litt. by the Muslim Aligarh University in 1941 on account of his services rendered by him in education, literature and religion.
Syed was very much disappointed on account of atrocities inflicted upon the Muslims at the time of partition. He decided to come to Pakistan although he was requested by the Prime Minister of India to stay. He came to Pakistan in 1950 and was appointed President, Board of Taleemat-e-Islamia in 1950. This Board was a part of the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan. He died in 1953.
Maulana Mohammad Shibli Naumani was born in May 1857 at village Bandol of Azamgarh. His father, Sheikh Habibullah was a Raees-e-Azam of the city, a successful industrialist and a lawyer of great repute. Shibli was the eldest son of his father, whose birth was celebrated with great pomp and show.
Shibli completed his education in 1876 and had acquired sufficient command over Arabic, Persian and the understanding of the Holy Quran. He was fortunate to learn from great scholars of the time like Maulana Muhammad Farooq, Maulana Abdul Hayee Farangi Mohalli, Maulana Irshad Hussain Mujaddadi, Maulana Faizul Hassan Saharanpuri and Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi. But Maulana Muhammad Farooq left a lasting impression on his personality. These religious scholars equipped Shibli with real knowledge in various fields. His literary taste was polished and trimmed by Maulana Muhammad Farooq to a large extent and he was very much impressed with the capabilities that Shibli possessed. Shibli was quite satisfied with the education he had attained from various sources. But two things disappointed him very much. Firstly, he was unable to get an employment of his own choice for a period of seven years (1876-83). Secondly, the movement of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan for spreading Western Education was a point of worry for him because he was trained in traditional/oriental studies. This, how-ever, did not allow Shibli to give up or surrender. Instead he faced the circumstances very boldly and courageously. He practiced as a lawyer at Azamgarh for sometime, but soon left this profession. Then he began to assist his father in his business, but this too did not suit his temperament. In fact, Shibli\'s destination was somewhat different.
In the beginning, he was against the educational scheme of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, but later he had to compromise with the thoughts of this great reformer. This change came in Shibli\'s personality, when he had the occasion of working with Sir Syed Ahmed Khan at MAO College, Aligarh. Some times, affinity with great personalities and the impact of their thoughts is so influential that it creates a great revolution in the beliefs, imaginations and lives of their associates. The same happened with Shibli and he benefited a lot from Sir Syed Ahmed Khan\'s association. In 1883, Shibli was fortunate to get an appointment at MAO College as a teacher of Oriental Sciences. This was the time when Shibli acquired skill in the art of poetry and composed many poems and odes. His poetry was a reflection of national thoughts which was because of academic environment of MAO College. Shibli successfully roused the feelings of the Muslims of India by writing/composing a Masnavi titled \"Subah-e-Umeed\", which became very popular.
At Aligarh, Shibli did not waste his time but concentrated all his energies in learning. This was because of the reasons that MAO College\'s library had plenty of rare books on various subjects. This made Shibli a good historian and writer. At Aligarh, he learnt French from Professor Arnold and taught him Arabic. His literary efforts and discourses added to the popularity of Aligarh College. An essay under the title of \"Musalmanoon ki Guzashta Taleem\" read by him in Muslim Educational Conference earned him great respect and repute. Shibli continued teaching as well as writing and published his popular book \"Al-Mamoon\", which negated all the charges leveled against Haroon-ul-Rashid by Palmer. He was able to write \"Seerat-un-Nauman\" in 1890 which indicates his attachment with lmam Abu Haneefa.
Besides, he wrote many historical literary and research articles from 1892 to 1898. The publication of these works made Shibli not only a great writer but also brought fame, respect and repute for him. The British Government awarded him with the title of \"Shamsul Ulama\" on account of his academic performance.
Because of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Shibli was able to establish connections with Nawab Umadul Mulk, Syed Hussain Bilgrami and his brother Syed Ali Bilgrami. He was awarded a Scholarship of Rs. 100/- per month by the Nawab. After he left Aligarh, he got an employment as Director of an institution \"Sarishta-e-Aloom-u-Fanoon\" established on the advice of Syed Ali Bilgrami. During his stay at Hyderabad, he was able to complete \"Al-Ghazali\" in which he has very skillfully analyzed the concepts and philosophy of lmam Ghazali. He also wrote books like \"llm-ul-Kalam\" and \"Al-Kalam\".
Although Shibli was too much busy in his job and writing books on various topics, yet he did not ignore the religious aspect and did participate in every such activity as and when he got time. He actively participated in \"Vakf-ul-Aulad\" Bill of 1 908, Friday Holiday in Government Offices during 1912, \"Vakf-e-lslami\" and \"Fitna-lrtidad\" etc. He had a great love for Turkey and very courageously wrote an essay in \"Azad Akhbar\" in favour of Turkey. He started a paper under the name of \"Muslim Gazette\" from Lucknow in 1912. In this paper Shibli used to write essays on political issues and successfully diverted the attention of the Muslims of India towards their actual objectives. Shibli separated himself from \"Darul-Aloom-Al-Nadva\" in 1913 and came back to Azamgarh. Here he started \"Madrassa-tul-lslah\". He also founded an institution \"Darul-Musanifeen\", which he could not complete during this life time. It was later completed by his pupil Syed Suleman Nadvi.
Maulana Shibli was a great lover of the Holy prophet (peace be upon him). During his stay at Aligarh, he had produced a Journal \"Badr-ul-Islam, which was included in the syllabus of Aligarh College. On account of his respect and emotional love for the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him), he started writing \"Seerat-un-Nabi\", but was unable to complete on account of severe illness. Before his death, he advised his pupil, Syed Suleman Nadvi that \"Seerat is the earning of my life, do complete this work ignoring everything.\" This indicates how much importance did he attach to this work.
Shibli was a great scholar and he did contribute a lot through his pen for the Muslims of India and later generations benefited to a great extent from his writing. He was awarded Tamgha-e-Majeedi by the Sultan of Turkey. He became Fellow of Allahabad University and a member of Royal Asiatic Society.
Shibli was the founder of the following institutions:
1. Shibli National School, Azamgarh
2. Darul-Aloom Nadva, Lucknow
3. Darul-Musanifeen, Azamgarh
He died on November 18, 1914.
Nawab Iftikhar Hussain Mamdot was born at Lahore in 1906. His father, Sir Shah Nawaz Khan Mamdot was a great political and social figure of the Punjab. The Mamdot family enjoyed great respect amongst the masses because of its popularity, prosperity and national services. After completing his education from Government College, Lahore, Mamdot joined police service at Hyderabad Deccan. But the police services did not suit his temperament and soon he left the job.
At that time, the Unionist Party of Sir Fazal Hussain had the support of all the big landlords of the Punjab and it had also considerable influence in the Council. The Muslim League was not so popular in the province at that time. Nawab lftikhar Hussain Khan Mamdot had a great political foresight and preferred to join the Muslim League. He was of the opinion that it was the Muslim League only which really represented the aspirations of the Muslims of India. His father, Sir Shah Nawaz Khan was a prominent figure of the Punjab and was loyal to the Muslim League from the core of his heart.
In 1937, when Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Au Jinnah and Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan agreed through a pact to include the Muslim Leaguers in the Assembly, the leadership of the Punjab Muslim League was assigned to Iftikhar Hussain\'s father. Iftikhar Hussain Khan supported the cause of the Muslim League and actively participated in its affairs. He became the President of the Punjab Provincial Muslim League in 1942 after the * death of his father. He wished that the Muslim League should be strengthened so that it could compete with the Unionist Party. For this purpose, he worked day and night and organized the Muslim League on sound footings in accordance with the wishes of his leader Quaid-i-Azam. He was a firm believer of party discipline and never took any decision before taking into confidence the members of the party.
Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad AU Jinnah had a great confidence upon Mamdot and believed that he was very sincere and dedicated to the Muslim League. During a fund collection campaign for the Punjab Provincial Muslim League, Nawab Mamdot donated Rs. 5000/- for the purpose.
Nawab Mamdot, while presiding over a conference of the Muslim League ( at Karnal in May 1942, demanded that the Muslims of India should be given their legitimate rights and India be partitioned. He stressed upon ~ the Muslims for unity and demanded loyalty from them for the Muslim League. Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was so pleased from his Karnal\'s address that he wrote a congratulatory letter to him in which he hoped that \"you will definitely follow your father\'s footprints\". Despite the fact that Malik Khizar Hayat Khan, Chief Minister of the Punjab was not sincere to the Muslim League, Nawab Iftikhar through his dynamic leadership succeeded in strengthening and expanding the Muslim League in the entire province.
Because of the flexibility in the constitution of the Muslim League, most of the prominent Muslims of the Punjab had also acquired the membership of the Unionist Party. Sir Chootoo Ram through his speeches and statements, was trying to attract the workers of the Muslim League towards the Unionist Party. Nawab Iftikhar Hussain Khan was fully aware of the Intrigues and conspiracies of the Unionist Party. He also knew that if a lenient attitude was adopted at this stage, the Unionist Party will succeed in weakening the Muslim League. He informed the Muslims about the pro-British activities of the Unionist Party and in this way did not allow Unionists to succeed in their vicious aims. It was his devotion and loyalty, which strengthened the Muslim League to such an extent that none had the courage to speak against this party in the province.
Nawab Sahib was a straightforward person and opposed those who followed dual policy. Because of the dual policy of some of the Muslim members of the Unionist Party, the image of the Muslim League was being shattered. Nawab Sahib firmly believed that Malik Khizar Hayat Khan was a British\'s stooge and he did not wish to see the Muslim League flourish in the Province.
This was because of his efforts that Malik Khizar Hayat Khan was ousted from the Muslim League in the beginning of 1944. Mamdot was the man who made the Unionist Party totally ineffective in the Punjab. He bitterly cirticised the policies of the Unionist Party and actively participated in the civil disobedience movement for the elimination of the Unionists from the Punjab.
During the provincial elections of February 1946, the hard work and efforts of Nawab Iftikhar Hussain Khan Mamdot brought fruit and the Muslim League was able to capture 79 seats in the province. It was a great victory fo the Muslim League and was a clear proof to the fact that the Muslims of the Punjab had all their sympathies and support for the Muslim League and idea of Pakistan. Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah congratulated Nawab Iftikhar Hussain Khan Mamdot through a telegram at this victorious occasion.
After independence, Nawab Iftikhar Hussain Khan Mamdot remained the Chief Minister of the Punjab upto 1948. He was also a member of the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan till 1 955. He also worked as Governor of Sindh during 1954-55. He died on October 16, 1969.
(Contributed by: Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad.)
To commemorate the Pioneers of Freedom (Series) Pakistan Post Office is issuing a set of three postage stamps of Re. 1/-denomination on August 14, 1992.