Towards the end of the First World War a new opportunity for positive action arose. At the request of trade unions in several countries, the peace Conference of 1919 set up a Labour Commission. After ten weeks of work the Labour Commission agreed on a document which on 11 April 1919 became Part XIII of the Treaty of Versailles. With amendments, it remains to this day the charter under which the ILO works. In its preamble the ILO Constitution declares that universal and lasting peace can be founded only on the basis of social justice.
In 1944 the International Labour Conference, meeting in Philadelphia, USA, adopted the Declaration of Philadelphia, which redefined the aims and purposes of the Organization. The Declaration which remains a guiding consideration in all ILO work, embodies the following principles:
* all human beings, irrespective of race, creed or sex, have the right to pursue both their material well-being and their spiritual development in conditions of freedom and dignity, of economic security and equal opportunity.
* the attainment of the conditions in which this shall be possible must constitute the central aim of national and international policy.
* all national and international policies and measures, in particular those of an economic and financial character, should be judged in this light and accepted only in so far as they may be held to promote and not to hinder the achievement of this fundamental objective.
* it is the responsibility of the International Labour Organisation to examine and consider all international economic and financial policies and measures in the light of this fundamental objective.
In 1969 the ILO was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The ILO is composed of a General Assembly, the International Labour Conference, which meets every year, an Executive Council, the Governing Body, and a permanent Secretariat. Pakistan became a member of the ILO in 1947 and has been ever since actively associated with its programmes and activities.
Nominees of the Government of Pakistan as well as of workers\' and employers\' organisations participate on a regular basis in international meetings, training courses, seminars and workshops organised by the ILO.
Between 1919 and 1993, 174 Conventions and 181 Recommendations have been adopted. They cover matters such as basic human rights (freedom of association, abolition of forced labour, elimination of discrimination in employment), training, occupational safety and health, labour administration, industrial relations, employment of women, employment of children, and employment of special categories such as workers or seafarers. Pakistan has so far ratified 30 Conventions and accepted 18 Recommendations, It is presently considering the ratification of other Conventions.
Technical co-operation is concentrated in the following major areas:
employment and development; training; entrepreneur ship, productivity and management; safety and health, condition of work and the working environment; social security; industrial relation (including labour administration); and workers\' and employers\' activities. Studies, research, new subjects.
The standard-setting activities of the ILO and its technical co- operation activities complement one another and are inseparable from its research and publishing work. ILO research is intended to throw new light on labour problems, to suggest ways of solving them and to indicate means by which these solutions can be put into effect. Such research is undertaken in the preparation of reports for consideration by the lnternational Labour Conference and for other meetings. Many studies and research projects are related to activities in the filed.
(Contributed by Labour, manpower and Overseas Pakistanis Division).
To commemorate the occasion Pakistan post is issuing a stamp of Rs. 7/- denomination on April 11, 1994.