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Wednesday, August 19, 2009

660th Jubilee of Amer Temur.(1997-3)

Amir Temur is famous in the world as an outstanding statesman, skilful commander, great planner and a patron of science and culture.
One of his first contributions to the peoples of Central Asia is that he put an end to the feudalism. Which had continued for about 140 years. He liberated the people of Central Asia from Mongol supremacy and formed a powerful centralized State.
This State was not an elite state of two or three classes, viz: landowners, soldiers or merchants, It was a State having several classes and strata of society: feudal lords, clergy, soldiers ordinary people etc. It was supervised on the basis of Shariat and law (tur and tuzuk). Temur rules with power and applicability of the law. Vizier, Emirs, Prince and merchants everyone was equal before the law.
Temur was an expert of military strategy, who carried out drastic reforms in the army, military planning and strategy. He formed a permanent corps for special tasks of 10,000 soldiers. It was named as \"Sunsiz\", which means \'Innumerable\". An agriculture corps, which was utilized in agricultural works and was named as \"Ekinchi\" (\"tiller\") was also organized.
Significant changes were executed in army as well. At that time, the army used to form one row, just before the starting of the battle. Temur ordered to form seven rows with flank protection and reserve, Temur commissioned into his army strong artillery, tactic of shooting with stones, wood and burning oil. All this was used during the siege.
The reconnaissance was strengthened as well. Before the start of the military campaign, the major part of the army was mobilized towards the borders of the enemy.
During the course of military action, Amir Temur used dummy maneuvers, ambush and methods of guerilla warfare to confuse his enemy.
It is a matter of common knowledge, that in the period from 1318-1404 Amir Temur undertook a campaign in Iran, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Syria and India, which resulted in destruction, havoc and human casualties.
There was no compelling justification for the attack on Hindustan (1398-1399). But nevertheless his campaign had led to some positive achievements such as:
Strong impact was created to the Golden Horde and Usmanian work. As a result, liberation of Russia from the Mongol Yoke was expedited. Peoples of Balkans were liberated as well.
The plans of Golden Horde, Turks and Egyptians on starting a big war in Near and Middle East for conquering and occupying Iran, Azerbaijan and Arabic speaking countries were foiled.
The Great Silk Road connecting East with the Mediterranean Land s and Europe was reconstructed. This is the second great contribution of Amir Temur to the history of the world.
Another contribution of great significance was the development of sciences and culture during Amir Temur\'s time. Such cities as Samarkand, Baghdad, Kesh, Karshi,.Bukhara, Benaket, Baylakan, Derbent and others, destroyed by Genghiz Khan were restored by Amir Temur. The irrigation system, gardens and parks, roads and \"Caravan-Soroys\" were reconstructed.
Disciplines such as: theology, jurisprudence, mathematics, astronomy, history, philosophy and music were developed by Great Temur.