Yellow Dwarf Cichlid
SYN: Apistogrammareitzigi, A. ritense, A. aequipinnis, Heterogrammas borellii
PD: A laterally compressed cichlid that has a stockier, less elongated body than A. agassizi. The caudal fin is fan-shaped within the male, the dorsal and anal fins meet at a point. The head and the area just behind the gill cover are golden- yellow. The belly and the very top of the back may also be golden-yellow in color. The middle area of the body is pale blue as are the dorsal, pelvic, and front parts of the anal fins. The dorsal and pelvic fins are gold-tipped. The caudal fin and most of the anal fin is golden-yellow. Often a red area develops on the caudal penuncle. When a fish is excited, several transverse marking develop on the sides of the fish. A short, black stripe extend through the eye and to the snout.
SIZE: Males to 2.8" (7 cm), female to 2" (5 cm)
HAB: Found in shallow swampy regions along rivers.
WATER: pH 5-7 (6.5) 1-10 dH (4), 77-81 F (25-27 C).
SB: A peaceful, although territorial fish that can be combined with other Apistogramma species, catfish, and small characins of the upper swimming levels. Keep one male with several females. This species will not harm plants.
SC: Corydoras, tetras, pencilfish, hatchetfish, loricarids, Apistogramma.
FOOD: live; crustaceans, insects, insect larvae; flakes; pellets; tablets; finely chopped eat.
SEX: Males are more colorful, larger, and have elongated anal and dorsal fins.
B: Follow suggestions for A. agassizi. Fewer eggs (40-70) are laid than A. agassizi. The fry are carefully paraded around the tank. In cases where the eggs fail to hatch, the female is said to collect a shoal of Daphnia to protect as if they were her own brood.
BP: 8. A. borellii is a difficult fish to breed.
R: This species is sensitive to medications, disease, and poorly maintained water. Make frequent partial water changes. Recently this fish has begun being bred in
DC: 7. A delicate species that is only recommended for those aquarists wanting a challenge.
SYN: Colisa bojeus, C. ponticeriane, C. vulgairs, Polyacanthus fasciatus, Trichogaster fasciatus, Trichopodus bojeus, T colisa, T cotra
PD: C. fasciata has an elongated, oval-shaped, laterally compressed body. The caudal fin is fan-shaped and the ventral fins are long and slender-almost thread-like. The back is olive to bright orange, while the belly is dull turquoise-orange. The flanks are orange, marked with several slender, transverse, turquoise stripes. The ventral fins are orange to red, while the anal fin is bluish with a red edging. The caudal fin is orange, and the dorsal fin is both turquoise and orange. The iris of the eye may be orange. Females are less colorful, with a white-silver belly region
SIZE: To 4" (10 cm)
SS: This species closely resembles C. labiosa, and is somewhat similar to the stocky-bodied C. lalia.
TANK: A tank measuring 24" (61 cm) with a capacity of 10-20 gallons (38-75 L) is sufficient. Use a dark substrate and place plants along the edges of the tank. Leave an open swimming area. like most Gouramis, C. fasciata prefers shallow tanks.
WATER: Ph 6-7.5 (7.0), 4-15 dH (8), 70-82 F (21-28 C)
SB: A species suitable for a community tank except at spawning times when fish become territorial. This fish may be timid during acclimation.
SC: Other Colisa species, Corydoras, barbs, loaches, Trichogaster, Angelfish, loricarids.
FOOD: Flakes; pellets; chopped vegetables; live; Tubifex, insect larvae, Brine Shrimp.
SEX: Males have a darker body color and have more pointed dorsal fins.
B: Use a separate breeding tank for the pair having a temperature from 79-84 F (26-29 C), a pH from 6.3-6.7, and a water hardness from 2-6 dH. The tank should be shallow and not have any water current. The male constructs a bubble nest, that can measure up to 5": (13 cm) in diameter. Spawning behavior is similar to that of other Labyrinth fish, with the male embracing the female, which is followed by intense shaking.
The eggs, numbering from 500-1000, float to the surface and are corralled by the male in the bubble nest. The female should be removed following the spawning as the male aggressively guards the nest. Remove the male after the eggs hatch about 24 hours later. The fry resemble small hairs near the surface of the water. Begin feeding with roftiers and infusoria. After a week or two, the young can be fed with powdered dry foods and Brine Shrimp nauplii.
BP: 6. Breeding requires a separate tank, but is not especially difficult.
R: This species can be crossed with C. labiosa.
DC: 2. This hardy species is recommended for the beginning aquariast.
SYN: Barbus tetrazon
PD: The Tiger Barb is high-backed fish with no barbels. Its back is brown to orange and the belly is white to silver. The flanks are silvery orange with a white iridescence. The body is marked with four, transverse bands; the first running through the eye, and the last running along the base of the caudal fin. The caudal fin is light orange but transparent. The dorsal fin is mostly black with a red fringe the edge. The other fins are transparent with an orange tint. The tip of the snout may be reddish.
SIZE: To 3": (7.5 cm)
SS: Banded Barb (P. tetrazon partipentazona)
HAB: Still and slow moving rivers. Southeast Asia;
TANK: A tank measuring 20" (51 cm) with a capacity of 10 gallons (38 L) is adequate for small fish under 1.5" (4 cm) in length. Larger fish should be kept in-a 24": (61 cm) tank with a volume of 20 gallons (75 L). The tank should be well- planted with hardy plants. Use a sandy or fine gravel substrate for burrowing.
WATER: pH 6.5-7 (6.7), 3-10 dH (5); 68-77 F (20-25 C)
SB: Not recommended for a 'typical' community tank because these fish are usually a nuisance toward tank mates. They are a shoaling fish. Don't combine with fish that have long or flowing fins (Angelfish or Siamese fighting fish) because Tiger Barbs will nibble at them. A large tank helps reduce this aggressiveness.
SC: Danios, Gouramis, Loaches, Doradids, Loricarids, Epalzeorhynchus.
FOOD: Flakes, vegetable foods; live; insect larvae, insects, Brine Shrimp, Tubifex worms.
SEX: The male is redder and smaller. It is paler during spawning season.
B: Use bunches of fine-leafed plants and use a substrate of marbles. The parents should be fed on white worms during the spawning. The female produces between 500 and 1000 eggs in slightly acidic (6.5) water, which hatch in 24-30 hours. The parents should be removed after eggs have been laid. Feed adults whiteworms during spawning so they don't eat eggs as they are iaid.
BP. 6 Breeding is fairly easy as long as the eggs are saved from the parents.
R: Several cultivated varieties exist, such as the Albino Tiger Barb, the Blushing Tiger Barb, and the Green Tiger Barb. Very susceptible to the parasite, 'lch'.
DC: 4. A sensitive, but colorful aquarium fish.
SYN: Hyphessobrycon innesi
PD: This fish has a slender body and is slightly laterally compressed. The back is silver to olive brown while the belly is silver. A green to blue iridescent stripe extends from the eye near the tail. Below this, beginning in the middle of the body, is a bright red band that runs to the base of the tail.
SIZE: 1.6" (4 cm)
SS: Cardinal Tetra (P. axelrodi), False Neon Tetra (P. simulans)
HAB: South America; Rio Putumayo, Eastern Peru: Most are now captive bred in
TANK: 20" (50 cm) or 1 0 gallons (38 L). The lighting should be dimmed by a cover of floating plants. The tank should be well-planted and have a dark gravel substrate.
WATER: Ph 5-8 (6.8); once acclimated 1-25 dH (8); 68-77 F (20-25 C)
SB: A peaceful fish ideal for a community tank. Do not keep the Neon Tetra with substantially larger fish such as Angels, for the neon may get eaten. Keep this fish in groups of five or more.
SC: Tetras, Corydoras, Apistogramma, Discus, gouramis, Hatchetfish, livebearers, Danios, Rasboras.
FOOD: Flakes; live; insect larvae, Brine Shrimp, Tubifex, Daphnia.
SEX: Males are slimmer and their neon blue stripe is straight. Females have a fuller stomach and their blue neon stripe bent.
B: Use a small breeding tank with a pH of 5-6, a water temperature of 75-77 F (24-25 C), and a water hardness of 1-5 dH. The tank should have subdued lighting and be well-planted with bushy plants. The female lays up to 130 eggs. Remove the parents after spawning. leave the eggs in the dark tank to keep down the growth of fungus. The fry hatch after 24 hours. The young are free swimming after five days, after which time they can be fed crushed flakes and paramecia.
BP: 7. The Neon Tetra is a moderately difficult fish to breed.
R: Susceptible to incurable neon disease. Among the most popular of tropical freshwater aquarium fish. Neon tetras are sensitive during acclimation, during this period neons are most likely to expire. After the initial week or two, the fish become adjusted and are fairly hardy.
DC: 3 The neon Tetra is a hardy, community fish. Avoid fluctuating water conditions.
SYN: Moenkhausia terntezi, Tetragonopterus terntzi
PD: This fish is somewhat oval-shape. Young are more attractive than adults. The main body color is dark gray to black while the fins are black. Older fishes' colors fade and their fins and body color become smoky gray. Two black bands extend vertically; one just behind the gill cover and the other in its midsection.
SIZE: To 2.5' (6.4 cm)
HAB: South America; in shaded, calm areas with plants thickets in small brooks in rainforest tributaries, of the Rio Negro, Rio
TANK: 20" (50 cm) or 10 gallons (38 L). The tank should be well-planted and arranged in dark colors. Use a cover of floating plants to diffuse the lighting. leave an open area for free-swimming.
WATER: pH 5.8-8.2 (6.8), 4-28 dH (8), 72-82 F (22-28 C)
SB: A peaceful, schooling fish that is an excellent community fish. Occasionally large, adult males can become aggressive towards smaller fish, but this is not usually a problem in a well-planted tank. Keep in a school of at least five individuals.
SC: Tetras, Corydoras, Apistogramma, Discus, Angelfish, livebearers, Gouramis,
asboras, loricarids. FOOD: live; insect larvae, crustaceans, aquatic insects; flake.
SEX: Males are smaller and slimmer. Females have rounded dorsal fin and a rounded
ody cavity when seen against the light.
B: This fish is easiest to breed in a breeding tank with marbles as a substrate or a mesh netting for the eggs to fall out of reach of the cannibalistic parents. Use warm water (84-86 F) to initiate spawning. After courting procedure of the male swimming around females with fins spread, many tiny transparent eggs that fall to the bottom. Parents must be removed or eggs will be eaten. The eggs hatch in 24-28 hours and the fry are free-swimming after 3 to 5 days after. Start feeding with small live and crushed flake foods.
BP: 6. Breeding the Black Tetra is not difficult.
R: There are variants of this fish who have longer, more elaborate fins. These are slightly harder to care for because these fins are often nipped at. A gold variety is also a product of selective breeding. This fish matures in about a year.
DC: 2. A hardy fish ideal for a beginner's community tank.
Date of Issue (October 09, 2004)