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Saturday, July 18, 2009


By. Muhammad Tariq Khatta

Dog is a carnivorous mammal. Its domestication time is not known with full surety, anyhow it is ascertained that its association began with man about 10,000 years earlier. There is a large variety of the size of the dogs. It is available in all parts of the world except Antarctica, and some oceanic islands. Its living members are divided into at least 38 species. Its population ranges between 120 and 150 Million. While its population in the United States of America is between 29 to 35 million.

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: - The dog has different breeds with a great genetic variation. The dog has developed more than 400 breeds in the world. It weights within the range of 700 gms to 110 Kilos. Its heights run within 20 to 37 inches. The hair of the dog has been found as long as 10 inches. While there are dogs e.g. Mexican dogs which are hairless also.

Dogs like greyhounds and borzois have “pushed in faces”. A basset hound of 14 inches height has 24 inches ears from tip to top.

The baby teeth of the dog fall at the age of 4 to 6 months. The adult dog’s teeth number 42. A dog can hear the sound toning 35 KHz that is 15 KHz more than the manpower. Dogs almost see only shades and grey and cannot perceive Colour. The dog posse’s very powerful sense of smelling, they have the ability to track faint and old trails.

USEFULNESS OF DOGS: - Dogs have been used by men in different jobs. They have been used in racing, hunting, guarding, companion-ship and leading the blind. The French have used dogs in tracing the edible fungi, which grows underground called perigord; Dogs are also used in searching narcotics. The Spanish conquistadors had trained the dogs to search and kill the Indians. In present world armies still get benefit from the service of the dogs in communicating messages and leading scout petrol. It has been revealed from the US Congress report that more than three million dogs are killed in medical research.

ORIGIN & HISTORY OF DOG: - It is a domesticated wolf. The fore runners of the wolf were present in North America about 15 to 10 million years ago. In Iraq fossil of dog hair found in a cave was of about 14000 years old. In that time dogs were used for hunting. Dog was the first animal domesticated by men. The early dogs resembled the wild dog of Australia.

KINDS OF DOGS: - Earlier the dogs were bred into many races depending on environmental conditions.

BREED CATEGORIES: - The breed of dog is so varied that it is very difficult to classify it. Anyhow some major groups are as under.

  1. SPORTING DOGS: - It is a very large group, which is used for hunting.
  2. POINTING BREED: - It is used in hunting of upland birds. It has a powerful sense of smell. The pointer detects a game bird and points its muzzle in the direction of the bird until the hunter arrives.
  3. RETRIEVING BREED: - Hunters have developed the retrieves. The dog brings the killed bird when ordered by its master.
  4. FLUSHING BREED: - These dogs search under-brush to game for the hunter. They are close ranging dogs. They stay as near to their masters as possible.
  5. SCENT HOUND: - They have a powerful smelling quality. They keep the game running and circling towards the hunter. These dogs are used on ground running Birds.
  6. SIGHT HOUNDS: - These dogs depend on vision while locating the game. Their bodies are fit to run fast. These are used for swift running mammals.
  7. TERRIERS: - These are very courageous dogs. They enter into the ground dens of foxes and rabbits etc. and drive them out for the hunters. These are still used for killing the rats and vermin.
  8. MASTIFFS: - This is a large and heavy breed. It is used as god dogs. The Assyrians and Babylonians have also used Mastif in hunting the lion. Modern Japanese used them as fighting dogs.
  9. NORTHLAND TYPE DOGS: - It is a very large group. They have stiff and erect ears and a curly tail. The sled and laikas comes in this group. These are used as hunter and watchdog.
  10. HERDERS: - These dogs have been used since long to guard sheep, cattle and goats. These can guide the herd.
  11. TOYS: - A small pet dog was commonly known in ancient China. Modern toy dog is not a dwarf but has a proportionate body.

SELECTING & CARING FOR A DOG: - Adequate selection can be made through a wide range of dogs according to the requirements. Great Danes, Bullmastiffs and St. Brenards are decorative but need a large area to afford them. Buyer should select well fed and a clean coat puppy and should confirm that the animals have no evident disease. Shy and withdrawn puppies should be avoided. Information about the inoculations of the puppy must be inquired and also may be checked up by the vertranian.

THE NEW PUPPY: - A newly brought puppy should be provided quite sleeping quarters, which should be comfortably warmer. Puppies should be vaccinated accordingly to prevent them from certain diseases. Stool test is advised for a new puppy to ascertain whether the puppy is free from diseases or otherwise. Hookwarm and Roundwarm can be transmitted to young children. If the puppy is harbouring fleas, spray can work positively but it should be borne in mind that excessive spray can prove harmful even to the human being if inhaled or contaminate food utensils.

FEEDING: - Dogs have a very digestive tract. They can digest meet, cheese, eggs and protein foods etc. 5% to 7% food should consists of animal fats. Less than 6 weed puppies can perform better on 4 or 5 feeding per day. Fewer feeding results in vomiting or diarrhea to them. 6 week to 10 week old puppies need four feedings, 10 weeks to 6 months need three feedings; 6 months to one year require 2 feedings and after one-year age one feeding is sufficient per day. Apart from milk, cheese, eggs, cereal vitamins and minerals can be added to the diet of the puppies on the advice of the experts. Over dose of vitamin D or mineral of supplements can cause deformity and other disease of bones.

Variety of human food &meat, dry meal etc can be given to the adult dogs as their physical requirements.

HOUSING: - Private dogs sleep indoor. They can be trained to sleep on blanket or mattress or in a dog’s bed. The sleeping room of the dog should be free from dampness, excessive heat or cold and fumes. A heavy dog can sleep outdoor also. A well-constructed doghouse should be provided to such dogs not more than three inches high than his head. In severe cold, snowfall and rain, measures should be adopted to keep the dogs away from unfavorable climates.

GROOMING:- Dogs need taking bath, their need may be fulfilled but to the minimum extent. Hairs on the eyes of some species should not be trimmed. Otherwise they will loose their eyesight. Their long hairs on eyes and beard should be kept clean.

In Roman period dogs were classified according to their size or their use. At a dog show, American Kennel club divided 115 breeds into six groups.

In Germany the miniature schnauzer was a famous dog farm. Mancheest terriers were used as rat killers and used in the horse stables. The poodle dogs are furnished with beauty and brain and it wins the human sense of humor.

Dalmatians were called coach dogs. It trotted under the rear axle of coach. Bostan terrier was bred in the United States by crossing the bulldog and a terrier.

TRAINING:- The dog that is kept in the family should be giving some training. Other wise it will become a nuisance or danger for the family. It should be trained to respond to some cautions like, come, sit, stay, No etc, the obeying dog on the aforementioned DO order will enable the owner of the dog to control it. Command may be give only on that occasion, when one wished it to be obeyed.

EQUIPMENT FOR TRAINING DOGS: - Correct equipment is necessary to be used. A show head with adjustable collar is sufficient for a new puppy.

HEAL: - After adequate training dog can be put to walk on your left, when heal is spoken. “NO” it is a short word. It should be used only when the dog is doing something wrong. “Sit” on ordering “Sit” the dog should be trained to sit at once. “Stay” After making the dog familiar to sit “Stay should be taught. “Come” After being trained in obeying the sit order dog should be trained to obey the come order. Dogs should be given training to come out of any obstacle or any other dangerous situation this training need at the puppy age of the dog.

The kennel club in the United States of America only pure arranges DOG-SHOW:- The dog show breed dogs compete in it. Entry is made on prescribed forms at least 12 days before the commencement of the show. It is a licensed show. Over 2000 entries are made in a show. A dog winner of 15 points is awarded the championship. 6 to 9 and 9 to 12 months old poppies are grouped for competition. The groups are further divid3ed sex wise. The winner receives a blue ribbon and further competes the other winner. The best dog and the best bitch receive purple ribbon. After that they compete each other. Two different judges judge the show.

The United kennel club, also sponsors the show under this small American Registry the best breed is awarded 15 points. 100 points are required for becoming a champion. Similarly kennel club England awards championship on winning three challenges certificates. Variety of shows is displayed in Australia, Hong Kong and Japan.

OBEDIENCE TRAILS:- Obedience Trials were accepted as trial competition by American Kennel club in 1936. The dogs tests are made in smelling, lying with other dogs sitting standing, retrieving and obeying similar other commands. Companion dog, companion dog excellent, utility dog, and tracking titles are conferred on the winners.

FIELD COMPETITION:- Field trials test are made in hunting and other fieldwork. The training and ability possessed by the dog is judged in this competition.

GUN DOGS:- In this trial the seeking locating and retrieving ability of the dog is judged; retrievers sit at their handlers until commanded to go and bring a bird from land and water. In this test dogs are called to fetch the seen or unseen seen bord. Hounds compete directly with each other.

SHEEP DOGS:- the dogs are required to gather the sheep drive them through a gate, stoop and move them into a pen. Australian cattle dog also compete in similar trials.

RACING, COURSING AND FIGHTING:- Grey Hound, chase a mechanical rabbit around an oblong track as far as 0.5 Km. in the United States betting is conducted in this race. Dog fighting is conducted under recognize rules. Championship is won on three winnings. Japanese use tosa in such competitions.

KENNEL CLUB:- It has two functions, first to keep the linage and second to regulate competition of the dogs. In 1844 it brought out its first book “Fox hound kennel stud book of the maestro of the foxhound Association”. Its first volume carried the hound’s names back to 1800. Kennel club are organized on different basis. There are National clubs, clubs for single breed and clubs for specialized interest. In 1930 the Federation cynologique International was formed to bring informality over dog shows and its basis. The Kennel Club published many magazines providing the latest information about trial and results of the Dog show and also articles on the related topics.

DISTEMPER:- Canine distemper is a viral disease. Its symptoms appear within six to twelve days. Infected dogs should be kept isolated and veterinary treatment is advised during the period of infection.

INFECTIONS CANINE HEPATITAS:- It is a viral disease with affinity for the liver and lining of blood vessels. In this disease a poppy can die within 24 days, abdominal pains are also felt. Broad spectrum anti biotic and blood transfusion are advised for the treatment according to the case. Preventive vaccine can also be used.

LEPTOSPIROSIS:- It is a bacterial disease. Vomiting, diarrhea and quick dehydration are the symptoms of this disease. Short-term vaccines are also helpful.

RAABBIES:- The incubation period of the virus is usually from 12 to 30 fays but it may be as long as six months or more. A dog should regularly be immunized.

ROUND WORMS:- These worms are about 12 to 20 cm long. This disease is caused when the dogs swallow the infective eggs. Strict sanitation and removal is a preventive measure in spreading and causing of this disease. Capricious appetites intermittent vomiting and diarrhea are the symptoms. Worms appear in vomit and stool.

TAPE WORM:- Tape worm is made up of a chain of body segments or proglottids. Infected fleas or lice, swallowed by the dog are digested and immature tapeworm is liberated.

HEART WORMS:- Its full length is about 25 to 30 cm. The worms commonly live in right ventricles of the heart. The larva produced by the female worms circulates in the blood stream. Chromic cough and collapse are the symptoms of the disease; surgical treatment and the protection of the infected dog from mosquitos are the cure and remedy advised in this disease.

HOOK WORMS:- Its length is from 10 to 19 cm. It attaches its mouth to the small intestine of dog. The larva migrate4s through the tissues of the pregnant bitch. They mature in the intestinal tract. Profound anemia in puppies is caused by the large number of hook worm’s strict sanitation; blood transfusion and administration of intestinal protective are recommended to prevent the disease.

TICKS:- Ticks are intestinal parasitize, Ticks fasten themselves to the dogs. Sprays and alcoholic dips are advised with extensive care. Without any care, the sprays result in poisoning.

FLEAS:- These dog fleas deposit their eggs in litter on ground. Within 3 months the larva changes into adult form. It creates itching and severe skin infections.

BREEDING ESTROUS CYCLE:- The bitch’s estrous cycle has four stages. Proestrus lasts 7 to 10 days. After these true estrous starts. It lasts about nine days and shifts into metestrus are 18 to 22 days. Most bitches pass through two estrous cycles in a year. The breeding time is between 10th to 14th days of the cycle.

THE NEW BORN PUPPIES:- After 62 to 63 days of pregnancy puppies are born. Second puppy is born shortly after the birth of first, after several hours other puppies are born. Within 10 to 14 days puppies open their eyes. They toddle about, when they are about 3 weeks of age. 4 weeks later they show behavior response. At 5 to 6 weeks they play. Scarped raw lean beef, cottage cheese and baby cereals can be given to the puppies at about 4 weeks of age.

DOG FAMILY:- The dog family is originated about 45 million years ago. It is widely distributed. It is a group of carnivorous mammals. All but a few species of canids have 42 teeth, five toes on the forefeet and four toes on the hind feet. A battered for has 50 teeth and a bush dog has 38. The other members of the dog family are wolves, coyotes, jackels, foxes, zorros, dingoes, and dholes, ranging from 1.5 Kg to 80 Kg and have a variety of Colour. The fur of some species of the wild canids is used in the clothing industry. Mostly the canids rely on the senses of smell and vision for hunting. Fox hint alone. Wolves hint in packs. The smaller canids have home range of 200 and 300 acres. The wolves have home ranges of 80 Km. the wild canids have extensively developed language. Apart from their vocal sounds, the position of the body has also meanings. Wolves have a vocabulary of about 30 words. Most canids avoid man and do not attack unprovoked, but when they are wounded, they attack with full power and inflict considerable damage. The canids also kill humans, when they are hungry. Usually canids reproduce one litter of 3 to 12 every year; its gestation period is about 63 days. Some times it is as short as 51 days, but as in the fennec fox, it is about 80 days. Nursed from 4 to 8 weeks. They become adult sexually at the age of one year.

CANINAE:- It is a sub family and contains 33 species some of them are canis, canis lupus, canis Niger, canis latrans, canis aureus etc these groups consists of dogs and jackels.

The true foxes have 9 species i.e. vulpes vulpes, vulpes fulva, vulpus volox, vulpus macrotis, bulpes reppeli, vulpus ferrilata etc. There are also some other groups, which are related to the fox group. These are Alopex lagopus, urocyon cinereoar-genteus etc. The raccoon dog is also a prominent species. There are 11 species in this sub-family, which confined to South America. These are Zorros and Atelocynus microtis etc. The crab eating fox is spread from Colombia and Venezuala to northern Argentina. Some of the interrelated families are Susicyon griseus, Dusicyon gymnocereus dusicyon culpaeus etc.

SIMOCYONINAE:- It is a sub family. These dogs belong to an extinct group of old world and South American dogs. These are dholes e.g. the African hunting dogs and the bush dogs etc.

OTOCYONINAE:- It is a sub family and is represented by a single species. It belongs to eastern and Southern Africa. This type is called otocyon megalotis.

DOG RACING:- It is a sport. The gray hounds and similar other dogs run after a line or artificial animal. A hare is left about 60 or 80 yards ahead and the dogs chase the animal in an open area or enclosure. 8 dog’s field in the USA and 6 dog’s field are used in British and Irish system. The run is over grass. In Spain, Portugal, Mexico, Austria, France, Italy, Sweden, and Colombia similar races are common. In USA a mechinal lure is left on 30 dog’s tracks. The game dogs pursuing the scent and sight are used in the racing. For many centuries these dogs were symbol of aristocracy. First written code for coursing was formulated in England in 1776. In 19th century grey hounds were used in chasing the jackrabbits and coyotes on the plains. In 1876 the first simulated hare was used in the racing pursued by hounds. In 1907 an artificial lure was used at Salt Lake City, Utah. Attempts were also made at Tulsa and at Okla. in 1920 and at Chicago in 1921 to introduce the grey hounds racing but the attempts failed as betting were not allowed on such type of racing. In 1926 St.Petersburg Kennel club opened its track, which is considered as the older grey hound track in the world.

The first English track opened at Belle Bue, Manchester in 1926 and in Austria it was opened in 1927. Grey hound racing was elevated in 1932 and afterwards. Now tracks are licensed by individual states and controlled by state racing commissions.

BREEDING AND IDENTIFICATION: IN 1882, the first greyhound book was initiated in England. Another Irish coursing club studbook started in 1923. National Coursing association USA has been publishing its studbook since 1936. Puppies are tattooed in the lift ear with mouth and year they were whelped and this number appear on every Bertillon card with the necessary numbers. It is checked before the race, the dog is participating. Major breeding centers exist at Abilene Ocala Fla. Nowadays Ireland is the largest supplier of the grey hounds.

GRADING: Grades are allotted to the dogs by the secretary of the track according to their past performance. The grades are A B C D E and M.A or AA is the best grade. Every time the winner dog advances by one grade until it reaches “A” failing consecutively, a dog is lowered by one grade. This system started since 1948.

RACE PRECEDURES: Dog begin racing at 14 to16 months. Their racing lasts for 3 years. Strict rules are observed during the race security measures are taken to check illegal medication. The dogs participating in races are kept alone under strict watch when they take part in race. When the dog is brought out for race its physical fitness and documents are checked. The mechanicial lure is started and the dogs are set free to pursue. Ten or eleven races complete a programme. Three judges decide the position of dogs.

TRACKS AND CLASSIC RACES: Tracks are generally about ¼ mile round and race distance vary from 3-16 or 7/16 mile. Famous National and international races include the wonderland derby at Revere, Mass, International derby; the Taunton (Mass); American derby, the Biscayne (Fla). The Irish-American Tri distance championship, and the world richest classic, the Flager international at Miami, the English derby at white city stadium in London and the Hobart (Tasmania) etc.

AMATEUR RACING: Racing with eight hounds other than grey hounds, Afghans, Irish wolfhounds, Salukis, Scottish deerhounds and borzois bear attraction. At Lake Harwell near Anderson South California scent hound races, in which hounds pursue a caged raccoon is drawn across 100 yards of water. The first dog passing a mark is declared “line” winner and the 1st hound that barks after entering a circle around the tree in which the quarry is held is declared “tree” winner”.

PHILATELY AND DOGS:- In many countries of the world beautiful stamps have been printed depicting various breeds of the dogs. These stamps represent a popular theme.